SCOTT 15 ON COVER. EARLY SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA COVER TO PORTSMOUTH NEW HAMPSHIRE
Early cross country cover from San Francisco to Portsmouth New Hampshire. Stamp has three large margins and is close at top. Note age stains on envelope and portion missing from flap.
BOSTON MASSACHUSETTS 1850S COVER WITH BROWNISH CARMINE SCOTT #25 STAMP
Superior condition for this cover with Scott #25 brownish carmine stamp. Scan does not do the deep color of this stamp justice. Red Boston postmark and black PAID circle grill killer tie stamp to cover. Addressed to E. B. Mason in Beverly.
BANGOR MAINE ALMOST SUPERB SCOTT #10 ON 1853 COVER. CONTENTS CONFIRM DATE
Outstanding cover and a quality addition to any collection of early American postal history. Wide margins on three sides and close at the bottom. Cover sports a clear and full Bangor Maine 3-PAID postmark. Contains a receipt dated April 15, 1853 for a subscription to the Bangor Courier. Letter and receipt are sent to Hiram Burr.
BOSTON MASSACHUSETTS 1820 STAMPLESS FOLDED LETTER FROM RENOWNED EPISCOPALIAN MINISTER ADDISON SEARLE TO JOHN HARRIS, NEW HAMPSHIRE STATESMAN AND 1ST POSTMASTER OF HOPKINTON.
This is an exceptional letter in outstanding condition from Rev Addison Searle to John Harris (see bios below) regarding Searle’s activities in Boston and surrounding communities prior to his Naval service (which he mentions in the letter). He comments on other Episcopal clergy, including the bishop of Rhode Island and provides virtually a complete account of his daily activities. A RARE COMMUNICATION OF GREAT HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE BETWEEN TWO PROMINENT MEN.
Rev. Addison Searle, b. Oct. 19, 1791.
Having finished his preparatory studies at the Academy, in New Ipswich, he entered Dartmouth College in 1812, and graduated in 1816. After leaving college, he was engaged about two years in teaching a school of young ladies, in Boston. He pursued his theological studies at Bristol, RI, with the Right Rev. Alexander V. Griswold, Bishop of the Eastern Diocese, and was ordained Deacon by that Prelate, in St. John's church, Providence, RI, in September, 1819. During his diaconate, he officiated several months in Hopkinton and Concord, NH. In April, 1820, he was appointed a Chaplain in the Navy, and in the following August was admitted to Priest's orders, in St. Michael's church, Bristol, RI, by Bishop Griswold.
In May, 1821, he sailed from Boston, for a cruise in the Mediterranean, in the Frigate Constitution, bearing the flag of Commodore Jacob Jones, and returned to the United States in 1824. From 1824 to 1827, his official duties were performed at the New York Navy Yard. During 1827 and 1828, he was rector of St. Paul's church, in Buffalo, N. Y., and also of a church in Detroit, Michigan. Feb. 8, 1829, he was stationed at Pcnsaco la Navy Yard, FL; in 1830 and 1832, at the Navy Yard in Charlestown; in 1833, at the Brooklyn Navy Yard. In Oct. of 1833, he returned to Detroit. In the spring of 1835, he sailed from New York in the sloop of war " Peacock," destined, (as flag-ship) for the East India station.
On her outward passage, the Peacock touched at Bio Janeiro, and there Mr. Searle was transferred to the sloop of war, Erie, the flag-ship of the U. S. Squadron on the coast of Brazil. At the expiration of this cruise in 1837, he was appointed to the chaplaincy of the Navy Yard, Boston. He continued at this station till the summer of 1849, when he received orders for duty on board the Frigate Cumberland; and in August, sailed from New York in that ship, for a cruise in the Mediterranean.
For several years before entering upon this, (which proved to be his last) service, Mr. Searle had suffered from disease of the heart. His health, at the time of his sailing, was apparently improved, but several months after, he had a return of his complaint. Under this he gradually failed, and on the 2d of August, 1850, died on board the Cumberland, on her passage from Messina, Island of Sicily, to Alexandria, in Egypt.
Some time after his decease, a few of his friends in Boston and vicinity, erected in Mount Auburn Cemetery, a marble cenotaph1 to his memory, which bears the following inscription:
Rev. Addison Searle,
Senior Chaplain in
Erected by friends
At the annual meeting of the Grand Encampment of Knights Templars of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, in Oct., 1850, resolutions were passed commemorating the virtues and good fellowship of "Rev. Sir Addison Searle, late Prelate of this Body."
Excerpts from a biography by C. C. LORD.
John Harris was born in Harvard, Mass., October 13, 1769; and came to Hopkinton, N. H., in 1794. He resided in Hopkinton till his death, on the 23d of April, 1845. When John Harris came to Hopkinton at the age of 25, the township was comparatively a new one, just redeemed from the wilderness.
John Harris was one of the social elite of Hopkinton. In person, he was dignified; in mind, cultivated; in morals, strict; in his home, a master of men-servants and women-servants; in industry, diligent and exact; by profession, a lawyer: by initiation, a Freemason; in politics, a Whig; in religion an Episcopalian. In his day and generation some of these things might be said of many men, but all of them could hardly be affirmed of anyone outside of the smaller social circle including that class sometimes called aristocratic.
John Harris was of medium stature and rather slim. In physical bearing, he was erect, but he sometimes walked with a peculiarly rapid motion that was noticeable. His complexion was fair, his hair was light, and he had blue eyes. We hear that he had a smooth face. By this we infer that he had no beard. John Harris dressed well, but he was not particularly scrupulous about his attire. In this he was like many other men of distinguished mental attainments. He collected a class of scholars and gave them free instruction in reading. His school room was the senate chamber of the old Hopkinton court house.
During much the larger part of the time John Harris lived in Hopkinton, he dwelt at the angle of two roads in the western part of the village, where the road to Henniker leads off from the main village street. The estate embraced about fifty acres of land, "suitably divided," as is often said. John Harris was diligent and studious. He could not frequently attend social sittings and indulge small talk. Consequently he became marked for his seclusiveness. Like numerous others of his kind, he was to a greater or less extent set down as" odd.
His father was Richard Harris and his mother was Lydia Atherton. Richard Harris was a carpenter. Diligent regard was given to John Harris' education, for in 1791, or when about 22 years of age, he graduated at Harvard College. He read law with Simeon Strong, of Amherst, Mass., and Timothy Bigelow, of Groton. Mass. In September, 1799, he married Mary Poor, born in Hampstead, NH, and daughter of Eliphalet Poor and Elizabeth Little. They had four children. George was born Feb. 6, 18o1, and died Feb. 17, 1849. Catharine, who became the wife of Timothy Wiggin Little, of Hopkinton, was born Jan. 23, 18o4, and died Feb. 16, 1843. Eliza Poor was born Jan. 21, 18o9, and died Oct. 31, 185o. Ann was born Feb. 19, 1812, and died Aug. 1, 1832. Mrs. Harris died Mar. 6, 1843, aged 64. Her reputation was that of a superior woman.
John Harris held numerous public offices. In November, 1810, he was appointed captain of the 4th company of the 21st regiment of the New Hampshire militia. When the Hopkinton post office was first legally established. April 1, 1811, John Harris was the postmaster, being succeeded by his son in 1825. In 1816. he was made a trustee of Dartmouth College. He was solicitor of Hillsborough County from 1817 to 1S23; judge of probate from 1812 to 1823, and the same for Merrimack County from 1823 to 1843. He was associate justice of the supreme court of New Hampshire from 1823 to 1833.
We have already spoken of John Harris as a Freemason. He gave great diligence to the welfare of the local Masonic element. In 1803, on the 10th of January, a preliminary meeting of the Palladian Society was held at his home. A constitution had been framed and adopted, and John Harris became the first treasurer. In 18o7, Trinity Chapter was formed in Hopkinton. In the priority of chapters in the State, Trinity was the second. John Harris was its founder. In 1824, he was its treasurer. He was also founder of the Tyrian Council, and of the Mount Horeb Commandery of Knights Templars. He was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge, .Grand High Priest of the Grand Chapter at its formation in 1819, and first Grand Master of the Grand Encampment of Knights Templars of New Hampshire at its formation in 1826.
In religious matters, as in other affairs, he was prominent. In 1803, an organization of the Episcopal Church, under the superintendency of the Rev. Samuel Meade, was effected in Hopkinton. It was known as "Christ's Church," and worshipped in the old county court house. John Harris was one of the subscribers to the ecclesiastical constitution. In 1826, the Rev. Moses B. Chase became the clergyman of the church and founded a new parish, which was incorporated in 1827 as "St. Andrew's Church." John Harris and William Little were its first wardens.
1945 TRUMAN INAUGURATION FIRST DAY COVER & FDR MEMORIAL COVER. DOROTHY W. KNAPP & RICHARDSON DESIGN.
OUTSTANDING FIND: ROOSEVELT MEMORIAL COVER WITH A DATE AND TIME STAMP ONE HOUR AND 15 MINUTES AFTER THE OFFICIAL DEATH TIME OF FDR. CACHET INAUGURATION COVER FOR HARRY S. TRUMAN WITH DATE AND TIME STAMP ONLY 21 MINUTES AFTER HIS OFFICIAL SWEARING IN CEREMONY. BOTH COVERS DESIGNED BY RENOWNED COVER MAKER DOROTHY W. KNAPP AND RICHARDSON. BOTH CACHETS ARE PRINTED AND ARE NOT HANDPAINTED. CONDITION IS OUTSTANDING. SEE IMAGE. OFFERED AS A SET OF WHAT MAY BE THE EARLIEST POSTMARKS FOR BOTH EVENTS.
SCOTT 115 ON CROSS BORDER COVER FROM MAINE TO HALLS HARBOR, NOVA SCOTIA
Maine postmark is light, but believe it is Portland Maine. Extremely rare cross border usage. Scissor-cut open at left. Stamp has minor age stains; common on issues of this era.
LOWELL MASSACHUSETTS 1857 COVER WITH SCOTT 25A. OUTSTANDING IN ALL RESPECTS
A rare find. Cover is in excellent condition and has full Lowell Massachusetts date postmark cancel of rare Scott 25A stamp. Full backflap. Cover was opened cleanly at right. No contents.
PITTSFIELD MASSACHUSETTS 1840 SPECTACULAR STAMPLESS FOLDED LETTER FROM HORATIO BRINSMADE, DD, TO THOMAS H. GALLAUDET REGARDING TREATMENT OF INSANE WIFE OF PROMINENT CITIZEN
Spectacular letter from Dr. Horatio Nelson Brinsmade, Pittsfield Massachusetts doctor of divinity, to his Yale Classmate Thomas Gallaudet asking him if he would treat the insane wife of one of the community’s leading citizens, Col. Thaddeus Clapp. She is also the daughter of renowned industrialist James Colt. Letter is even more significant because of the handwritten notes by Gallaudet in the margin: “wrote him Jan 1840 saying that I would write again in a few days and let him know whether there would be room and telling him if the case was very pressing they had better look to Worcester or Charlestown.” A second entry: “wrote again Jan 1840 that there is no room in the Retreat.” A pencil notation notes: 12 days centre / 4 days wing / 13 weeks in advance / bond surety.
Rev. Dr. Horatio Nelson Brinsmade From Princeton Theological Seminary Records:
Dr. Horatio N. Brinsmade was the son of Thomas C. and Elizabeth Brinsmade, and was born at New Hartford, Conn., Dec. 28, 1798. He received his preparation for College at Phillips' Academy, Andover, Mass., from John Adams, and was graduated from Yale College in September, 1822. He united with the Congregational church of his native town, New Hartford, upon profession of his faith, at seventeen years of age. Immediately after leaving Yale, he entered Princeton Seminary, where he remained nearly one year, after which he went to Hartford, Conn., and studied Theology about ‘two years under the Rev. Joel Hawes, D. D., teaching also in the Deaf and Dumb Asylum in that city from May, 1823, until Dec, 1831. He was licensed by the North Congregational Association of Hartford, in June, 1824, and was ordained by the same body as an Evangelist, June 1, 1828. He supplied the North Congregational church in Hartford a part of the years 1827 and 1828, preaching also for other churches in the vicinity during the most of his residence in Hartford. In December, 1831, he left Hartford and began to preach at Collinsville, Hartford Co., Conn. At this place a Congregational church was organized in August, 1832, which he served until Nov. 1834. At the latter date he began to preach at Pittsfield, Mass., where he was installed pastor of the First Congregational church, Feb. 11, 1835. Here he labored with great popularity and success for six and a-half years, and was released Sept. 9, 1841, having accepted a call to the Third Presbyterian church of Newark, N. J. Over this new charge he was installed Sept. 23, 1841, and here he labored with large acceptance and usefulness for twelve years. On Oct. 9, 1853, he was released by the Presbytery of Passaic. His next pastorate was over the First Congregational church at Beloit, Wis., where he was installed Feb. 10, 1854, and closed seven highly successful years of labor, Jan. 1, 1861. During nearly the whole of this time he gave gratuitous instruction in Beloit College. From Beloit he returned to Newark, N. J., where he commenced labors with a mission of the Third Presbyterian church, as a result of which the Wickliffe Presbyterian church was organized by the Presbytery of Passaic, May 14, 1865. He continued to serve this young church as stated supply until April 15, 1867, at which date he was duly installed as its pastor, from which pastoral relation he was released by Newark Presbytery April 17, 1872. He continued, however, to reside in Newark, preaching often, useful in many ways in the church and the community, honored and beloved by all around him, until his death. This event occurred Jan. 18, 1879, in the 81st year of his age. His voice was heard in exhortation and prayer a few days previously in the meetings held during the week of prayer, with no abatement of its natural force. His death was sudden, probably of heart disease, after only a few hours of illness, but all with him was light, and peace and joy in believing.
Dr. Brinsmade was thrice married. First, at Farmington, Conn., to Maria S., daughter of the Rev. Joseph Washburn, Sept. 29, 1825. Secondly, at Collinsville, Conn., to Amelia, daughter of Alexander Collins, April 29, 1833. Thirdly, at Great Barrington, Mass., Jan. 1, 1866, to Anna M., daughter of George Warner. His last wife survives him, but he had buried all his children, four in number.
Dr. Brinsmade was one of the best of men, and one of the most faithful and useful of pastors. His preaching was always with earnestness and love. He spent and was spent in the service of Christ. Having traveled extensively in Europe and the East, he had broad and intelligent views. He was faithful, affectionate, devout. The law of love was the rule of his life. He made the impress of his piety and fidelity on all who came within the reach of his influence.
Thomas H. Gallaudet Biography
Philadelphia-born T.H. Gallaudet (1787-1851) became the most prominent American educator of the deaf after studying the cause in England, Scotland and France. He founded the first public institution for the education of the hearing impaired in Hartford in 1817, serving as its president until ill health forced him to step down in 1830. His lifelong devotion to the care of the handicapped continued with his appointment as chaplain and board member of a Middletown, Ct. insane asylum where he served until his death in 1851. He also took to caring for those with mental illness and served as chaplain of both an insane asylum and a county jail.
Gallaudet attended Yale University, earning his bachelor's degree in 1805, graduating at the age of seventeen, with highest honors, and then earned a master's degree at Yale in 1808. He wanted to do many things such as study law, engage in trade, or study theology. In 1814, Gallaudet became a preacher following his graduation from Andover Theological Seminary after a two-year course of study.
However, Gallaudet's wish to become a professional minister was put aside when he met Alice Cogswell, the nine-year-old Deaf daughter of a neighbor, Dr. Mason Cogswell. He taught her words by writing them with a stick in the dirt. Then Cogswell asked Gallaudet to travel to Europe to study methods for teaching Deaf students, especially those of the Braidwood family in Edinburgh, Scotland. Gallaudet found the Braidwoods unwilling to share knowledge of their oral communication method and himself financially limited. At the same time, he was not satisfied that the oral method produced desirable results.
While still in Great Britain, he met Abbé Sicard, head of the Institution Nationale des Sourds-Muets à Paris, and two of its Deaf faculty members, Laurent Clerc and Jean Massieu. Sicard invited Gallaudet to Paris to study the school's method of teaching the Deaf using manual communication. Impressed with the manual method, Gallaudet studied teaching methodology under Sicard, learning sign language from Massieu and Clerc, who were both highly educated graduates of the school.
Having persuaded Clerc to accompany him, Gallaudet sailed back to America. The two men toured New England and successfully raised private and public funds to found a school for Deaf students in Hartford, which later became known as the American School for the Deaf. Young Alice was one of the first seven students in the United States. This is where his school began. Even some hearing students came to this school to learn. In 1821, he married one of his former students, Sophia Fowler.
Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet died at his home in Hartford on September 10, 1851, aged 63, and was buried in Hartford's Cedar Hill Cemetery. There is a residence hall named in his honor at nearby Central Connecticut State University in New Britain.
His son Edward Miner Gallaudet (1837–1917) founded in 1864 the first college for the Deaf which in 1986 became Gallaudet University. The university also offers education for those in elementary, middle, and high school. The elementary school on the Gallaudet University Campus is named Kendall Demonstration Elementary School (KDES), the middle and high school is Model Secondary School for the Deaf (MSSD).
Gallaudet had another son, Thomas Gallaudet, who became an Episcopal priest and also worked for the Deaf. Gallaudet's father, Peter Wallace Gallaudet, was a personal secretary to US President George Washington, when the office of the President was located in Philadelphia.
Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet was the eldest of 13 children. His younger siblings' names were: Edgar (1789–90), Charles (1792–1830), (unnamed twins, 1793), Catherine (1793–1856), James (1796–1878), William Edgar (1797–1821), Ann Watts (1800–50), Jane (1801–35), Theodore (1805–85), Edward (1808–47) and Wallace (1811–16). William Edgar Gallaudet graduated from Yale with a B.A. in 1815.
Fall 1807 - Chancellor Livingston of New York, and James D. Colt of Pittsfield, brought the first Spanish sheep, the Merino, into Pittsfield, that sold for as high as $500 each. Watson exhibited two of these fine Spanish sheep at Park Square. This was the first time Merino sheep had been shown in New England. Merino wool could be “woven into a fabric almost as sheer and resilient as silk, yet possessing greater strength and warmth.” Its fleece was of uniform quality, which was preferred in an era when spinning was becoming a factory job. Capt. James Donaldson Colt was the son of Capt. Jas. Donaldson Colt, Pittsfield, MA, Miriam Williams was his 2nd wife. Col. THADDEUS CLAPP, the oldest woolen manufacturer in the country, has just died at Pittsfield, Mass., aged 73 years.
The Housatonic mill made its fabrics under purely democratic guidance, and in February, 1814, the following gentlemen, all federalists, were incorporated as "The Pittsfield Woolen and Cotton Factory." (Sic:) Lemuel Pomeroy, Joseph Merrick, Ebeuezer Center, Samuel D. Colt, David Campbell, Jr., Thomas B. Strong, James Buel and Arthur Schofield. Their charter was subject to the general law of 1809, regarding manufacturing companies, and they were empowered to hold real-estate to the value of thirty thousand dollars and personal property to the amount of one hundred thousand dollars. A meeting of the corporators was held April 8,1814, and, it having been determined to fix the par value of the shares at one thousand dollars each, the whole capital stock was at once subscribed, as follows: Lemuel Pomeroy, thirty shares; Arthur Scholfield, twenty; Eben. Center, thirteen; David Campbell, thirteen; Thomas Gold, five; Samuel D. Colt, thirteen; James Buel, four; James Wrigley, seven; Joseph Merrick, thirteen; William C. Jarvis, one; Thomas A. Gold, two; Isaac Scholfield, seven; Jason Clapp, one. Messrs. Center, Colt, Pomeroy, Campbell and Arthur Scholfield were chosen directors, and James Buel clerk.
The directors lost no time, but immediately purchased from Samuel D. Colt, for two thousand one hundred and twenty dollars, a tract of land consisting of five acres on the west side of the west branch of the Housatonic river, and a strip about six rods wide along the east side. Between the two there was a fine water privilege—the same now used by the lower mill of L. Pomeroy's Sons—and a dam which had recently been erected for a contemplated powder-mill.
There was no public road; but the most convenient access was by South Street, from which a private way extended to the mill, on the line upon which a road was afterwards laid by the town as described below.8
James D. Colt was engaged, at a salary of five hundred dollars per annum, commencing April 11, 1814, "to superintend the building of the factory, under the direction of the directors; he keeping an account of lost time, which was to be deducted from said five hundred dollars."
The factory built under Mr. Colt's superintendence was a substantial brick-structure eighty feet long, forty-five wide, and three stories high, besides an attic. It was lengthened, in 1871, to one hundred and twenty-five feet, and is now the lower mill of L. Pomeroy's Sons.
The factory went into operation in the spring of 1815, under as competent management as the town then afforded. Messrs. Pomeroy and Campbell had the general conduct of its affairs; Ebenezer Center, a merchant, and Samuel D. Colt, who had for some years been successfully engaged in the sheep and wool trade, were entrusted with the purchase of raw material; Arthur Scholfield had charge of the picking, carding, spinning and weaving; and Richard Lowe, an Englishman and a new-comer, was engaged to carry on the fulling, dyeing and finishing.
Mr. Thaddeus Clapp of Easthampton, became general superintendent and manager of all the departments of the mill.
Mr. Clapp was bred to the clothier's trade in his native town, and afterwards perfected himself, so far as was th'en possible in America, in all the details of the woolen-manufacture, in the factories at Middletown, Conn., and Germantown, Pa. He was the first American-born citizen of Pittsfield, who, by his native talent, thorough knowledge of his art, and general business-qualities, was competent to manage a woolen-factory. Indeed, he was the first of any nationality who was so qualified; for Scholfield, in many particulars, fell far short of that mark.
The Pittsfield Woolen and Cotton Company had thus secured an honest and capable management of its mill; but they had still the most disheartening difficulties to encounter.
The Pontoosuc Woolen Manufacturing Company, by which this mill was erected, consisted of Henry Shaw of Lanesboro, David Campbell, Thaddeus Clapp, and George W. Campbell, of Pittsfield. It was formed in 1825, but not incorporated until 1826, nor formally organized until 1827, when the following officers were chosen: Henry Shaw, president; David Campbell, Jr., general agent; Thaddeus Clapp, superintendent; George W. Campbell, clerk and treasurer.
Of Messrs. Shaw and Clapp sufficient sketches have been given. David Campbell, Jr., was born in Pittsfield in 1782, being the son of Capt. David Campbell, whose business-talents he fully inherited. Engaged in most of the commercial and manufacturing enterprises of the town during his active life, he always held a prominent place on their boards of control, as well as in those of the Agricultural Society. The confidence of his associates in his knowledge, sound judgment and integrity was unbounded, and his contemporaries paint him as shrewd, reticent, a close scrutinizer of men and things, strict in his dealings, but with a warm heart and kindly manner for those who dealt frankly and fairly with him. Previous to his connection with the Pontoosuc mill he was engaged at one time in mercantile business with James Buel. He had also been successful in distilling the oil of peppermint, a drug then in great demand for exportation. He contracted for entire fields of that herb in Lanesboro and Pittsfield; but he foresaw the glut in the market and withdrew from the speculation in season to escape loss. At another time he was engaged in the manufacture of linseed oil at Luce's mill in Pittsfield, and at a mill in Hinsdale. He died June 30, 1835.
In May, 1862, Col. Thaddeus Clapp transferred a portion of his stock to his son, Thaddeus, Jr., who was made assistant-superintendent, and in 1865, became general agent and superintendent. In 1865, Colonel Clapp died, leaving his share in the Pontoosuc property to his widow and children. In 1864, J. Dwight Francis, son of Mr. Ahniron D. Francis, having purchased a portion of David Campbell's stock, was chosen clerk and treasurer; and in 1865, assistant-superintendent.
The goods manufactured at the Pontoosuc mill, in the forty-eight years since it went into operation, have often been varied to suit the changeful moods of the market; but, since 1834, not so frequently as to forego the advantages of devotion to a single product. Indeed, many of the fabrics are of a class in regard to which the market is most fickle; and it has been the pride of the company to meet its phases promptly and profitably, without depreciating the quality of its goods.
George Campbell was born in 1811. He represented the town in the legislature 1857, and was selectman for several years. "Thaddeus Clapp, the younger, was born in 1821, being the eldest son of Colonel Thaddeus and his wife Elizabeth, who was the daughter of James I). Colt, the second of that name in Pittsfield. Familiar with woolen-mills from his infancy, he earl; acquired an accurate knowledge of all the details of the manufacture, which, together with an unusually correct taste and judgment in styles, and an intimate acquaintance with markets, gave him great success in his position.
It commenced, in 1827, upon plain broadcloths and cassimeres, making, as has been said, the mistake of attempting to supply every color, from black to crimson, and all grades of quality. This course continued until 1834, when it began the manufacture of drab carriage-cloth, for which it soon obtained a demand that occupied it exclusively, except at occasional brief intervals when black and blue broadcloths were made. This continued until 1860, when, the fashionable rage for the balmoral style of ladies' skirts commencing, the company made them a specialty; and, not only devoted all the machinery in their mill to this product, but filled several neighboring buildings with hand-looms for the same purpose. Mr. Thaddeus Clapp, having collected in Canada some recently-imported patterns, among which were the plaids of several Highland clans, was able to introduce new designs, distinguished for good taste and brilliant colors. And during the patriotic fervor of the earlier years of the civil war, a few styles in red, white and blue, added to the reputation of the company for adapting its work to the market.